The 3rd International Conference on
Water Resource and Environment (WRE 2017)
Invited Speakers
Dr. Chih-Huang Weng

Professor, Dept. of Civil and Ecological Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan

Speech Title: Effective Adsorption of Direct Red 23 Azo Dye onto Powdered Tourmaline

Abstract: The high electric field on the surface of tourmaline particles has a potential of enhancing electrostatic reactions during adsorption. However, information concerning the adsorption characteristics of dyes onto tourmaline is currently unavailable. In the present study, the behavior and efficiency of powdered tourmaline (PT) in removing the diazo Direct Red 23 (DR23) dye from aqueous solution was investigated. The observations from batch adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorption were more favorable under low adsorbate surface loading, low pH, high temperature, and low ionic strength conditions. A homogeneous particle diffusion model (HPDM) was used to characterize the process, and the rate of adsorption was found to be controlled by intra-particle diffusion. An activation energy of 4.54 kcal/mol was calculated, suggesting that the adsorption proceeded with a low energy barrier and that a physisorption was involved. The functional groups binding anionic DR23 on the PT particles were also identified. A maximum adsorption capacity of 153 mg/g was determined according to the Langmuir isotherm. The PT was subjected to a total of 5 regeneration runs without losing much of its dye-adsorption capacities. Due to its low price, abundant availability, and superb adsorption capacity, PT has a great potential for use as an effective adsorbent in removing DR23 from aqueous solutions.

Dr. Deb P. Jaisi

Environmental Biogeochemistry Laboratory, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, USA

Speech Title: Impact of agricultural runoff of phosphorus in downstream water quality: A case in the Chesapeake Bay, USA

Abstract: Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields is a major cause of water quality problem around the world. Sources of P including agricultural runoff, geological sources, and recycling and remobilizing from legacy sources are poorly constrained largely due to methodological limitations. This, in fact, has been a major obstacle preventing the accurate assessment of nutrient loads released to open waters and developing appropriate nutrient management plans. We analyze dissolved, suspended particulate matter, and sediment bound P in the surface water, porewater, and sediment in the continuum to develop a source-sink relationship of P in an ecosystem. To achieve these goals, we merge advanced analytical techniques including stable isotopes [phosphate oxygen (δ18OP), nitrogen (δ15N), and carbon (δ13C)], spectroscopic methods [1-D (1H, and 31P) and 2-D NMR, Raman, and IR] and a suite of mineralogical (XRD), microscopic (SEM and TEM) and elemental analyses. Our key findings points towards dominant process of organic phosphorus remineralization and pathway of P cycling, active transformation of settling particular matter in water column, biological cycling out of pace with P loading from agricultural runoff, and higher rate of degradation of recalcitrant organic P. New insights gained from these findings on the pathway and extent of biological cycling are expected to be useful to address water quality issues in the Chesapeake Bay and extended to comparable watersheds in the world.

Dr. Hi-Ryong Byun

Professor, Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea

Speech Title: Quantitative Definition and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Little Water Season (LIWAS) in Korea

Abstract: Like other continental climatic regions Korea has a period around the spring when agricultural activities are interrupted frequently by a shortage of available water resources during the season. This season, which is termed the Little Water Season (LIWAS) in this study, has important implications for many socio-economic activities but the scientific definition of this season remains vague. In this study, the onset and termination dates, as well as the characteristics of the LIWAS have been defined based on the Available Water Resources Index (AWRI). Based on the proposed definition of LIWAS, the implications on hydrological conditions over a range of geographic scales and their inter-annual variations on the water resource environments in Korea have been assessed. To develop an appropriate index for LIWAS based on AWRI, the criterion value (CV) for LIWAS was set as the lowest 25th percentile of the AWRI values averaged for 30 years (1981-2010). Therefore, the Little Water Season for Korea (LIWAS_K) was considered as the period when the daily averaged AWRIs were successively lower than the CV (143.7 mm). Based on this, the mean onset and end date of LIWAS_K, was 9 February and 11 May which also reflected the period in the spring season when the available water resources are expected to the lowest. Moreover, a number of seasonal characteristics of the water availability during the LIWAS, such as the Little Water Intensity (LWI), Water Deficit Amount (WDA) and Water Deficit Intensity (WDI) have been defined for the particular study region. Based on our results, we aver that the proposed season classification of the LIWAS can be better analyzed using the concept of usable water resources as a classification of dry period instead of using temperature and raw rainfall datasets.

Dr. Hamidi Abdul Aziz

Professsor, School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

Speech Title: Treatability study of Zeliac as filter media in river bank filtration system

Abstract: Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a cost-effective, natural pretreatment technology that uses natural filtration at the river bank instead of chemicals to pretreat surface water and groundwater supplies. The present study introduces an application of a novel composite adsorbent named Zeliac as an alternative filter media in RBF to simultaneously remove dissolved organic carbon (DOC), metals and pathogenic bacteria from RBF system. The case study river water was high in E.coli (1026.99 MPN/ 100 mL), DOC (3.6 mg/L), Fe (2.30 mg/L), and Mn (0.21 mg/L), and exceeded the standards for drinking water. The properties of Zeliac were analysed using XRF, BET and FTIR. The removal efficiencies and the removal kinetics were investigated through batch and fixed-bed column studies. Zeliac which mainly consists of Ca, Si and Al had a good cations exchange with surface area of 40. 6 m2/g and average pore size of 16.5 nm. The presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups proved that Zeliac can attract positive ions pollutants, at the same time, the carbonyl groups may aid in the adsorption of organic carbon. The isotherm and kinetic studies revealed that the pollutants were removed by adsorption onto heterogeneous surface. In terms of the removal efficiencies, Zeliac was able to reduce over 73 % of DOC, 79 % of colour and eliminates Fe and Mn in the water to less than 0.05 mg/L. The breakthrough curves showed that the total coliform and E.coli were not detected for up to 31 hours of experiment. The Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and pH in the final effluent of column study was 53-100 mg/L and 9 respectively, and complied with the permissible limit for drinking water. These findings indicate good performance of Zeliac as alternative adsorbent for the removal of selected parameters from investigated drinking water source.

Dr. Ping Wang

Senior Research Scientist, Virginia Institute Marine Science, USA

Speech Title: Assessing Water Quality of the Chesapeake Bay by the Impact of Sea Level Rise and Warming

Abstract: The influence of sea level rise and warming on circulation and water quality of the Chesapeake Bay under projected climate conditions in 2050 were estimated by computer simulation. Four estuarine circulation scenarios in the estuary were run using the same watershed load in 1991-2000 period. They are, 1) the Base Scenario, which represents the current climate condition, 2) a Sea Level Rise Scenario, 3) a Warming Scenario, and 4) a combined Sea Level Rise and Warming Scenario. With a 1.5-1.9oC increase in monthly air temperatures in the Warming Scenario, water temperature in the Bay is estimated to increase by 0.8-1oC. Summer average anoxic volume is estimated to increase 1.4 percent compared to the Base Scenario, because of an increase in algal blooms in the spring and summer, promotion of oxygen consumptive processes, and an increase of stratification. However, a 0.5-meter Sea Level Rise Scenario results in a 12 percent reduction of anoxic volume. This is mainly due to increased estuarine circulation that promotes oxygen-rich sea water intrusion in lower layers. The combined Sea Level Rise and Warming Scenario results in a 10.8 percent reduction of anoxic volume. Global warming increases precipitation and consequently increases nutrient loads from the watershed by approximately 5-7 percent. A scenario that used a 10% increase in watershed loads and current estuarine circulation patterns yielded a 19 percent increase in summer anoxic volume, while a scenario that used a 10% increase in watershed loads and modified estuarine circulation patterns by the aforementioned sea level rise and warming yielded a 6 percent increase in summer anoxic volume. Impacts on phytoplankton, sediments, and water clarity were also analysand.

Dr. Qiang Liu

Associate professor, Key Laboratory for Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, China

Speech Title: The hydrological effects of varying vegetation characteristics in a temperate water-limited basin

Abstract: Aims: To extend the steady state Budyko-Choudhury-Porporato (or BCP) model by incorporating dynamic ecohydrological processes into it and combining it with a typical bucket soil water balance model (resulting in the dynamic BCP, or dBCP, model); and to assess the impacts of vegetation on the water balance in a temperate water-limited basin (i.e., the Yellow River Basin (YRB) in north China), where growing season phenology is primarily constrained by low temperatures. Methods: Used the dBCP model to assess the impacts of vegetation on the water balance. Results: The incorporation of dynamic growing season (fs) and dynamic effective rooting depth (Ze) conditions into the dBCP model improves results when compared to the original BCP model; dBCP model’s results vary depending on time-step used (i.e., we tested mean-annual to monthly), which reflected the influence of catchment variables, e.g., catchment area, catchment-average air temperature, dryness index and Ze; and actual evapotranspiration (E) is more sensitive to changes in mean storm depth (α), followed by P, Ze, and Ep. When taking into account observed variability of each of four ecohydrological variables, changes in Ze cause the greatest variability in E, generally followed by variability in P and α, and then Ep. Conclusions: Incorporating the dynamic ecohydrological processes to estimate E provides enhanced understanding of the interaction between climate, soil, vegetation and hydrological processes. This example provides additional insights into how P is partitioned to E and Q across a temperate water-limited basin. The dBCP model has modest forcing data requirements and can be applied to other regions globally.

Dr. Tomohito Kameda

Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Japan

Speech Title: Removal of Borate and Fluoride in Aqueous Solution using Mg-Al layered double hydroxide: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies

Abstract: Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (Mg–Al LDHs) intercalated with NO3- (NO3·Mg–Al LDHs) and with Cl- (Cl·Mg–Al LDHs) were found to take up borate and fluoride from aqueous solutions. Boron was removed by anion exchange of B(OH)4- in solution with NO3- and Cl- intercalated in the interlayer of the LDH. Fluoride was removed by anion exchange of F- in solution with NO3- and Cl- intercalated in the LDH interlayer of the LDH. In all cases, the residual B and F concentrations were less than the effluent standards for B and F in Japan (10 and 8 mg/L), respectively. The rate-determining step of B and F removals by the NO3·Mg-Al and Cl· Mg-Al LDHs was found to be chemical adsorption involving anion exchange of B(OH)4- and F- with intercalated NO3- and Cl-. The removals of B and F are well described by a pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics, with Langmuir-type adsorption. In case of B, the values of the maximum adsorption and the equilibrium adsorption constant were 3.6 mmol g–1 and 1.7, respectively, for NO3 ·Mg-Al LDH, and 3.8 mmol g–1 and 0.7, respectively, for Cl·Mg–Al LDH. In case of F, the values obtained of the maximum adsorption and the equilibrium adsorption constant were respectively 3.3 mmol·g–1 and 2.8 with NO3 ·Mg-Al LDH, and 3.2 mmol·g–1 and 1.5 with Cl·Mg–Al LDHs. The B(OH)4- in B(OH)4·Mg–Al LDH produced by removal of B was found to undergo anion exchange with NO3- and Cl- in solution. The NO3 ·Mg-Al and Cl·Mg–Al LDHs obtained after this regeneration treatment were able to remove B from aqueous solutions, indicating the possibility of recycling NO3 ·Mg-Al and Cl·Mg–Al LDHs for B removal. The F- in the F·Mg–Al LDH produced by removal of F was found to exchange with NO3- and Cl- ions in solution. The regenerated NO3 ·Mg-Al and Cl·Mg–Al LDHs thus obtained can be used once more to capture aqueous F. This suggests that NO3 ·Mg-Al and Cl·Mg–Al LDHs can be recycled and used repeatedly for F removal.

Dr. Yongping Yuan

Research Hydrologist, US EPA Office of Research and Development,
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA

Speech Title: Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case Analysis

Abstract: Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality.

Dr. Yu Yang

Associate professor, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, China

Speech Title: The Impacts of PhACs on Biofouling during the NF/RO Membrane Filtration

Abstract: Aims: The aim of our study is to investigate the impacts of PhACs on biofouling during NF/RO membrane filtration through a comparison between the control experiments without PhACs addition and the feed water spiked with a cocktail of PhACs. Methods: Biofouling (BF) test, in which biofilm growth was promoted, was performed by pure culture inoculum (P. aeruginosa) into the artificial wastewater. All experiments were carried out in a cross-flow membrane system using a flat sheet membrane with an effective area of 24 cm2. The membrane foulants characterized by TOC, EPS, MW and EEM were related to membrane deterioration in terms of flux and PhACs rejection. Results: The flux decline of both membranes with PhACs addition in feed water increased compared with the control experiment without PhACs addition, suggesting the PhACs aggravated the biofouling. Total EPS and TOC on the fouled surface were both higher than the control experiment. Addition of PhACs was shown to induce a significant increase of the concentration of proteins on the membrane surface whereas no significant change was found for polysaccharides. Conclusions: The presence of PhACs increased the biomass both in the feed water and on the membrane surface and hence cause a severer biofouling. This study may help understand the effects of mixtures of PhACs on biofouling and the removal of PhACs by NF/RO membranes in practical application.

Dr. Aziz Ghoufi

Institut de Physique de Rennes, Université de Rennes1, Rennes, France

Speech Title: Desalination through Nanoporous Boron Nitride

Abstract: Clean water is ubiquitous from drinking to agriculture and from energy supply to industrial manufacturing. With conventional water sources in short and decreasing availability news technologies for water supply have a crucial role to play in addressing the world’s clean water needs in the 21st century. Desalination is in many regards the most promising approach to long-term water supply since it is virtually unlimited supply. Seawater desalination using reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has become a common method for countries with direct access to the sea. While this technology is widely used and has proven to be efficient, it remains, however, relatively costly due to the use of high-pressure pumps due to the low water permeation of RO membranes. The last two decades, considerable effort has been invested into the development of RO membranes. Among popular nanoporous materials, carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, have been examined for desalination. Thus, both experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have demonstrated that CNT can allow fast water flow and low salt molecule/ion rejection. One of route to improve the salt rejection and increase the water permeation with respects the usual RO polymeric membranes consists in using two dimensional (2D) membranes (2D) nanoporous membranes as graphene which contains artificial nanometric hole which can provide solutions in these both areas. With these 2D membranes water can flow through very narrow nanopores thanks to its small molecular size while ion passage can be simultaneously blocked given the larger size of ionic hydration shell. Recent results on BN nanotubes and nanoporous BN monolayers herald that 2D boron nitride can be a potential desalination nanofilter. Indeed, by means of molecular simulations we have shown an increase in water permeation through nanoporous BN membrane with respect that nanoporous graphene. In this presentation we will evaluate the ability of nanoporous boron nitride to be used as nanofilter into the desalination process.

Dr. Yoram Gerchman

Biology and Environment, University of Haifa and Oranim College, Israel

Speech Title: Combined Constructed Wetland-UV Systems for Local Small Scale Waste Water Treatment

Abstract: The Middle East region is an arid area, resulting water availability being an ongoing issue. In Israel much of this issue is solved by wastewater treatment and reuse (and recently by seawater desalination). Nevertheless wastewater treatment is much scarcer in the Palestinian authority and in Jordan, due to the relative high percentage of rural population in these countries, combined with the high costs and complexity associated with building and maintaining centralized wastewater treatment facilities. To try and help the remediation of this situation we study the use of simple local, decentralized wastewater treatment systems - Constructed Wetlands (CW). We have found that these systems offer good removal of COD to acceptable standards, but lack in removal of bacteria from the water. To remediate this we have tested the use of low-cost, off-the-shelf, low pressure UV systems. Those UV systems were found to decrease the bacterial count to within standards, but appropriate flow rate was imperative. These results are of special interest since the CW effluent %UVT was much lower (40-50%) than usually accepted for UV treatment with such system. Results demonstrate the power of applying a simple low-cost combined CW-UV system as a viable option for wastewater treatment in small secluded communities.

Dr. Jose Ramon Barros Cantalice

Professor, Soil Conservation Engineering Laboratory, Department of Agronomy, Rural Federal of Pernambuco University, Brazil

Speech Title: Hydraulic resistance in overland flow generated by vegetation in a semiarid hillslope gradient as controlling interrill erosion

Abstract: The vegetation generates hydraulic resistance in shallow flow that occurs in interrill erosion. Thus, this research had the objective of analyzing the hydraulic roughness parameters generated by shrub vegetation and crops in a semiarid hillslope in field condition under interrill erosion. To this a set of simulated rains were made in two slope gradient. The first one at 4.9% and second one at 8.9 %, cover by shrub and also used to produce semiarid crops were conducted set of two experiments to investigate the hydraulic resistance originated from different vegetation types, and its effects on interrill erosion. The first set experiments were conducted under simulated rain in a randomized block with 5 treatments and 5 replicates, totaling 25 experimental plots with dimensions equal to 1 m wide by 2 m in length, bounded by aluminum sheets. The slope of this field was 8.9%. The treatments were consisted of five different conditions created from a bare soil and four different vegetation types as follows: Shrub (shrub plus shrub litter), shrub litter (shrub, where the plants were removed), Guandu (Cajanus cajan) was spaced in 1.5 x 0.7 m and had 1.3 m tall, “sweet potato” (Ipomoea potatoes Lam) spaced in 0.5 x 0.25 m in herbaceous size. The second set experiments were conducted in a part of hillslope under 4.9% slope under simulated rain in a randomized block with 3 treatments and 4 replicates, totaling 12 experimental plots with the same dimensions. In this experiment the treatments were: Shrub (shrub plus shrub litter), Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) spaced in 1 x 0.5 m and in growth stage with 0.45 m tall, and bare soil. The simulated rainfall was applied using a simulator comprising a nozzle type spray VeeJet 80 -150 internal diameter of 1/2 inch. The bigger water discharges and velocities had occurred in the bare soil to both experiments. The lowest values to velocity and water discharges were obtained on the conditions imposed to flow from shrubs on the two experiments. The shrub litter also has created significant decrease on velocity of flow and water discharge. The flows that crossed shrubs showed the highest depth and Darcy-Weisbach coefficient values. Nevertheless, all plant types affected the hydraulic resistance. The overland flow that had occurred under Ipomea potatoes showed lowest hydraulic resistance, equaling roughness presented by the bare soil. The flow that had occurred between Guandu plants also showed the highest depth had the second high level of hydraulic resistance by Darcy-Weisbach coefficient. The obtained results show that on the overland flow on 8.9% has the drag coefficients to all testes were better adjusted to Froude number by an exponential expression.

Dr. Carlo Gualtieri

Professor, Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy

Speech Title: Numerical Study of Hyporheic Flows and Resistance on Bedforms

Abstract: Despite the traditional separation between the studies of surface water and groundwater flows, it has been long recognized that rivers and aquifers are strongly connected and that their interaction gives rise to a continuous exchange of water and solutes, which exerts a significant influence on water quality. The volume within the porous medium where groundwater and stream water mix is termed hyporheic zone, which has hydrodynamic, physiochemical and biotic characteristics different from those of both the river and the subsurface environments. The paper presents results from a numerical study carried out to investigate the influence the geometry of a bedform on a coupled free fluid-porous medium flow. Laminar flow in the water column above three different types of periodic bedforms and Darcian flow in the underlying permeable sediments were simulated. The simulations were carried out under steady-state conditions in a range of bedform height-based Reynolds number ReH from 6 to 4448. First, numerical data confirmed the close relationship between the characteristics of the separation region in the water column downstream of the bedform crest and those of the hyporheic zone in the porous medium. Second, numerical results highlighted the influence of the geometry of the bedform on the development of the hyporheic zone. Third, the numerical data were validated by a comparison with both numerical and experimental data from the laminar backward-facing step flow. Fourth, skin friction and form drag were evaluated and compared. Finally, the issue of the application of these results to turbulent flows was discussed.

Dr. Narong TOUCH

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hiroshima University, Japan

Speech Title: Improving sediment and water qualities by sediment microbial fuel cell technology

Abstract: Aims: Recently, methods of using industrial waste, for example steel slag and granulated coal ash, have been paid attention for improving sediment and bottom water qualities. In our research, we take a new look at improving sediment and bottom water qualities by sediment microbial fuel cell technology (SMFCT). Methods: Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the improvement of sediment and bottom water qualities by SMFCT. Electrons were recovered from sediment at different conditions, and changes in sediment conditions (e.g., ignition characteristic, pore water quality) and bottom water quality by SMFCT were investigated, compared with those in the cases without SMFCT. Results: Diffusion of reduced substances released during organic matter digestion, such as hydrogen sulfide and manganese ion, from sediment into bottom water was abated by SMFCT, lowering depletions of dissolved oxygen and redox potential of bottom water. Anodic oxidation of SMFCT increased redox potential of sediment, and increased ferric ion concentration in sediment which can fix phosphate in sediment. SMFCT also converted organic matter in sediment to labile structure-organic matter state, which is expected to enhance sediment remediation. Conclusions: It can be concluded from our results that SMFCT is an alternative technology to improve sediment and water qualities concurrently.

Dr. BVN. P. Kambhammettu

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad, India

Speech Title: Grid-Size Dependency of Evapotranspiration Simulations in Shallow Aquifers: An Optimal Approach

Abstract: This research aims at improving the performance of regional groundwater models by incorporating high-resolution elevation data into the head-dependent packages of MODFLOW. Model code specific to the evapotranspiration package (EVT) of MODFLOW was modified to account for the variability in elevation data and to effectively delineate the evapotranspiration (ET) simulated region at user-specified digital elevation model (DEM) resolution. The regional groundwater model of the Rincon Valley–Mesilla Basins (NMOSE-2007 flow model) was improved and considered to evaluate and validate the developed code. The base DEM of the study area is smoothened and aggregated to various resampled resolutions that are integer divisors of NMOSE-2007 flow model resolution for use with ET simulation. A gradual decrease in ET outflow is observed when the variability in elevation is eliminated across the grid cell. Also, changes in cumulative ET outflow (as a fraction of total outflow) at different resampled grids followed a similar trend during the simulation. The computational cost is high for the models simulated at fine resolution, whereas the simulation accuracy is low for the models simulated at coarse resolution. To select the optimum resampled DEM resolution to simulate the ET component of groundwater for use with the NMOSE-2007 flow model, a chi-square test of homogeneity was performed at 5 and 10% significance levels by considering computational cost and simulation accuracy as the base parameters. Results of the statistical analysis concluded that simulating ET component at 80.467-m resolution and integrating the outflows to model cell (402.336 m) resolution would significantly improve the performance of the flow model without compromising on the computational cost.

Dr. Haider M. Zwain

College of Water Resources Engineering, Al-Qasim Green University, Iraq

Speech Title: Enhanced Biodegradation of the Solid Fraction from Recycled Paper Mill Effluent in Modified Anaerobic Inclining-Baffled Reactor

Abstract: Recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) contains high concentrations of organic matters and total solids, and therefore requires proper treatment prior to discharge. There is a lack of experimental data available on the enhancement of RPME biodegradation and digested sludge in anaerobic reactors. Accordingly, the thermal condition is believed to have a major effect on the biodegradation processes of organic substrates. Therefore, the biodegradation of RPME was evaluated in modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor (MAI-BR) under low mesophilic (29°C), mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The compartmental contents of TSS, VSS, TDS, lignin and VSS/TSS ratio were studied. The results showed a notable reduction in TSS concentration throughout the reactor with the increase in temperature, whereas an increase in concentrations of VSS and TDS concentrations were observed, especially in Compartment 1. Under thermophilic conditions, the VSS/TSS ratio was higher than this in mesophilic conditions, while lignin became hard to remove. These results conclude that operating the reactor at thermophilic has reduced the digested sludge within the system and enhanced the biodegradation process of RPME.

Dr. Komali Kantamaneni

Maritime, Technology and Environment Hub, Research and Innovation, Southampton Solent University, Southampton, UK

Speech Title: Landscape Planning and Erosion Vulnerability Assessment: A Novel Approach

Abstract: Aims: Identification of disappearing coastal destinations of the UK based on the intensity of erosion in diverse landscapes. In addition, a combined coastal vulnerability framework will be developed to evaluate the current and future scenarios of disappearing coastal destinations. Methods: Basic CVI (Coastal Vulnerability Index) concepts of Kantamaneni (2016a; 2016b) have been adapted to the current study for an evaluation of combined coastal vulnerability (physical, economic, and socio-economic). This methodology was modified based on the study site’s landscape and erosion characteristics. As a result of adding new physical and socio-economic parameters to those defined by Kantamaneni (2016a; 2016b), these characteristics were measured differently. Along with these evaluations, GIS vulnerability maps were generated, making the given study unique. Results: Primary results revealed that five coastal sites across the UK (four in England - Spurn Head, Barton on Sea, Birling Gap, and Hallsands, and one in Scotland - Benbecula) were identified as disappearing coastal destinations. These destinations are very likely to crumble (most of the area) into the sea in the next two centuries because of unique landscape futures and high intensity erosion rates. Subsequently, the UK map will be changed in the next two hundred years. Conclusions: Results of this research will improve current understanding of both the physical and economic consequences of changing environmental conditions, particularly in highly eroding and low-lying areas. This study could help inform the effective planning of coastal management strategies in both physically and/or economically important areas.

More will be coming soon...
The 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment (WRE 2017)
Conference Secretary: Mengqin Chen
Email:   Tel: +86 18911869790